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来源: 发布时间:2016-04-08 浏览次数: 【字体:
2016-04-07 吴怡雯  PPP知乎


Clearing the air: the 5 most common questions about national park PPPs 


Big Pine CreekRecreation Area, Inyo National Forest, California.美国加州因幼国家森林

If the thought of summer conjures up visions of national parks, you’re not alone – in 2014, nearly 3 million tourists visited forests, mountains, trails, and rivers at U.S. national parks. 
If you crossed the gate into one of these treasures, you probably didn’t care whether that particular forest or mountain fell under government or private ownership. But it’s worth noting, because national park concessions fill a vital role helping the National Park Service carry out its mission, and there are benefits to these partnerships that can keep the parks viable — and the visitors happy — for decades to come. 

There are also misconceptions about national park PPPs. To clear the air, I’ve answered some of the most common questions below.




How does national park privatization work?

Generally, private operators are more efficient than the government in the park operations. In part, this is because these companies have focused their whole business model on park operations, so they have developed proven processes for park management.

A private work force tends to be less expensive and more flexible than civil servants. Perhaps more importantly, civil servants typically are paid all year long, even when the park is not very busy or is closed. In contrast, concessionaires have identified a large pool of workers who are flexible and actually are looking for seasonal work. Using these efficien­cies, private operators take on public parks that are typically losing money for the government and convert them to a financial asset, generating cash for the government in the form of rent pay­ments while still serving the public. 
Perhaps most important, privatizing parks takes them off the government budget, and makes them immune from being pawns in government budget battles. In the 1990s, when a disagree­ment between President Clinton and the Repub­lican Congress shut down the government, the only federal parks open were those operated by private concessionaires.





Is a national park operated under a PPP vulnerable to government sequester conditions?

For those of us who love parks, it’s exasperating to see that they are constantly used as a political football in budget debates.One advantage of concession operation of parks, beyond the expense reductions, is that the park budgets become untouchable in these political food fights.



How does the private company get paid?

With a few exceptions, most recreation conces­sionaires are paid entirely by user fees — for example, by the fees at the gate, for camping, and from certain retail sales within the park. The concessionaire is not paid by the govern­ment, and receives no subsidy. In our company, 100 percent of the revenues we receive are from visitors.

3。 私营企业如何盈利?


Won’t private companies just build a McDonald’s in front of Old Faithful?

This is one of my favorite questions, because it is absolutely predictable that it will get asked whenever I discuss park privatization with a group of government officials. Typically I give three answers:

1.    It simply is not possible. Under the terms of a typical operating contract, a concessionaire cannot change fees, facilities, operating hours, or even cut down a tree without writ­ten approval from the parks organization.

2.    Generally, the parks we take over are popular for their natural or historical attractions. Diluting these attractions in any way is just business suicide for operators.

3.    It doesn’t happen. We operate over 100 parks in this manner across the country and you would not be able to tell the difference between the facilities we manage and any other public park.

We aren’t trying to take ownership of the land. We are willing to accept whatever recreation mission or preservation mission the public owner of the park sets and manage the park to that mission.



1. 很简单这是不可能的。典型的运营合同条款明确规定,特许经营不能改变收费、设施、营业时间,甚至没有公园组织协会的批准不能随意砍掉一棵树。

2. 通常我们会接管受欢迎的自然和历史景点较多的公园,任何减少吸引力的作为对经营者来讲就是商业自杀。

3. 绝对不会发生。我们在全国已经经营了100个公园,你应该无法说出我们管理的设施和任何其他公共公园之间的差异。



Will private companies increase the entrance fees?

Generally not. First, operators cannot raise fees without their government landlord’s approval. Second, public recreation is generally attractive to visitors because it is low-cost and offers real value — raising prices and reducing value would only drive customers away.

Here is a real-world example to underscore this point: California State Parks charges $30 a night for a campsite with no utilities. Our private company operates hundreds of public campsites for other govern­ment agencies in California, and not one of those has a nightly rate greater than $20.


一般不会。首先,运营商不能在没有政府的批准下提高收费标准。其次,公共旅游通常对于公众的吸引力在于低价和提供真正的价值— 涨价和减少价值只会让游客离开。